Training Materials

Epidemiological and Statistical Methods and Musculoskeletal Research Training Workshop, Harare, Zimbabwe. 11th - 13th March 2019
Introduction & Aims for the workshop [CGregson]
Measuring Health and Disease [EMajonga]
Data Types and Distributions [CGregson]
Clinical Trials [FFitzgerald]
Study design [KKranzer]
Bias [JChurch]
Confounding [MBwakura-Dangarembizi]
How to critically appraise a paper [CGregson]
Research Budgets [CGregson & RFerrand]
Data Management [TBandason]
Correlation, Linear and Logistic Regression [TBandason]
Statistical Interaction [CGregson]
Measurement Error [CDziva Chikwari]
Lessons in Epidemiology [RSiwela]
Lessons in Epidemiology [CMukwasi-Kahari]
Sample Size Calculations [CDziva Chikwari]
How to get paper published [APrendergast]
Sensitivity and specificity [KKranzer]
Overview of pQCT [KW]
How to perform forearm pQCT [MO'B]
Bone Age Review [CG]
Bone ageing [KW]
Musculoskeletal Research Training Workshop, Harare, Zimbabwe, 19th-22nd March 2018
Learning from Birth to 20s - Presentation by Prof Lisa Micklesfield
Physical Activity and Bone in Africa - Presentation by Prof Lisa Micklesfield
HIV and Bone in South Africa - Presentation by Prof Lisa Micklesfield
Sarcopenia in African Women - Presentation by Prof Lisa Micklesfield


Gait Arms Legs Spine (GALS)

The GALS screening examination is designed for routine clerking of a patient.

Paediatric Gait Arms Legs Spine (pGALS)

pGALS is a simple, quick and validated musculoskeletal screening tool for use in the assessment of the school-aged child. It has been developed from the adult GALS through consultation with doctors and therapists, most of whom are members of the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology (BSPAR).

Osteoporosis, Rather Than Sarcopenia, Is the Predominant Musculoskeletal Disease in a Rural South African Community Where Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Is High: A Cross-Sectional Study


South African Clinical Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis: 2017

Stephen Hough, Aslam Amod, Brynne H. Ascott-Evans, Susan L. Brown, Bilkish Cassim, Mike Davey, Tobie J. de Villiers, Graham Ellis, Stan Lipschitz, Mkhululi Lukhele, John M. Pettifor, Wimpie De Lange and Ernst W.W. Sonnendecker for the National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA)


The FRAX® tool has been developed to evaluate fracture risk of patients. It is based on individual patient models that integrate the risks associated with clinical risk factors as well as bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck.


The National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA)

The National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA) is the only non-profit, voluntary health organisation dedicated to promoting lifelong bone health in South Africa.

The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF)

The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) is a registered not-for-profit, non-governmental foundation based in Switzerland. IOF has been granted Roster Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.

The Bone Research Society (BRS)

The BRS is one of the largest national scientific societies in Europe dedicated to clinical and basic research into mineralised tissues, and is the oldest such society in the world.

The European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS)

The ECTS is the major organisation in Europe for researchers and clinicians working in the musculoskeletal field.

The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR)

The ASBMR is a professional, scientific and medical society established to bring together clinical and experimental scientists who are involved in the study of bone and mineral metabolism.

The National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG)

The National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) comprises a multidisciplinary group including patient representation and professionals involved in the care of people with osteoporosis.

The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD)

The ISCD is a professional membership association dedicated to advancing excellence in the assessment of skeletal health.

International Conference on Children’s Bone Health (ICCBH)

ICCBH provides an international forum for the presentation and discussion of current basic and clinical science in the field of bone development and health in children, adolescents and young adults.

International Federation of Musculoskeletal Research Societies (IFMRS)

The IFMRS is an international, not for profit federation of musculoskeletal research societies. The IFMRS mission is to advance musculoskeletal research globally in order to prevent and treat musculoskeletal diseases by collaborating with international societies to share resources, raise public awareness and provide education.