Gait Arms Legs Spine (GALS)

The GALS screening examination is designed for routine clerking of a patient.

Paediatric Gait Arms Legs Spine (pGALS)

pGALS is a simple, quick and validated musculoskeletal screening tool for use in the assessment of the school-aged child. It has been developed from the adult GALS through consultation with doctors and therapists, most of whom are members of the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology (BSPAR).


South African Clinical Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis: 2017

Stephen Hough, Aslam Amod, Brynne H. Ascott-Evans, Susan L. Brown, Bilkish Cassim, Mike Davey, Tobie J. de Villiers, Graham Ellis, Stan Lipschitz, Mkhululi Lukhele, John M. Pettifor, Wimpie De Lange and Ernst W.W. Sonnendecker for the National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA)


The FRAX® tool has been developed to evaluate fracture risk of patients. It is based on individual patient models that integrate the risks associated with clinical risk factors as well as bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck.


The National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA)

The National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA) is the only non-profit, voluntary health organisation dedicated to promoting lifelong bone health in South Africa.

The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF)

The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) is a registered not-for-profit, non-governmental foundation based in Switzerland. IOF has been granted Roster Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.

The Bone Research Society (BRS)

The BRS is one of the largest national scientific societies in Europe dedicated to clinical and basic research into mineralised tissues, and is the oldest such society in the world.

The European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS)

The ECTS is the major organisation in Europe for researchers and clinicians working in the musculoskeletal field.

The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR)

The ASBMR is a professional, scientific and medical society established to bring together clinical and experimental scientists who are involved in the study of bone and mineral metabolism.

The National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG)

The National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) comprises a multidisciplinary group including patient representation and professionals involved in the care of people with osteoporosis.

The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD)

The ISCD is a professional membership association dedicated to advancing excellence in the assessment of skeletal health.